A speaker is an electromechanical or electroacoustic device used for sound reproduction, it converts electrical pulses into sound.
How is sound produced in a speaker?
A speaker works by moving a membrane or cone that produces vibrations in the air, and in this way generates sound waves that we perceive as sound.
This conversion of electrical impulses into sound is carried out in two phases:
A first that converts electrical impulses into mechanical energy through the speaker's moving coil.
The coil is associated with the cone or membrane, so that the vibrations or movements that are produced in the coil by the electrical impulses are produced in the cone or membrane, and are transformed into sound or acoustic waves that we perceive as sound.
What are the most common speaker parameters?
What types of speakers exist depending on the frequency of sound?
The human ear perceives sounds in the band range from 20 Hz to 20 Khz, therefore, we have specialized speakers for each of the frequency ranges. The divisions normally used are the following
Full-range or full-cone speakers: They are general-purpose speakers and are designed to reproduce sound over a wide spectrum of frequencies, from low to high. These speakers are compact and used in general audio applications.
Subwoofers or Bass Speakers: This type of speakers is specialized in reproducing low frequency sound, providing a deep sound in the bass range.
Tweeters or Treble Speakers: This type of speakers is specialized in reproducing sound at high frequencies, giving a clear response in the treble range.
Mid-range speakers: This type of speakers is specialized in reproducing sound in the middle frequencies and is important for providing clarity and precision in the reproduction of voices and musical instruments.
Coaxial speakers or double cone speakers: This type of speakers actually consists of several speakers physically mounted as a single unit, so that it has two cones and they are normally one for treble and the other for midrange.
What type of speakers exist depending on the direction or orientation of the sound?
Depending on the direction of the sound you want to use, we will find the following types of speakers:
Directional: A directional speaker is a type of speaker designed to emit sound in a certain direction.
These speakers are used when you need to direct the sound to a specific area instead of dispersing it throughout the environment.
Public address systems, conference room sound, theater audio installations are some of the typical locations for directional audio systems, where the sound needs to be directed to a specific area or a particular listener.
The technology used in directional speakers is developed in the shape and arrangement of the speaker elements, the use of waveguides or the use of phase control technologies, and in this way the sound is optimized in a certain direction, optimizing hearing. of listeners in a specific area.
Omnidirectional: An omnidirectional speaker is a type of speaker designed to emit sound in all directions evenly, and in this way the sound is distributed evenly 360 degrees around the speaker, rather than being directed or focused in just one direction. address.
Omnidirectional speakers are ideal for creating a surround sound experience in large or open spaces. These speakers allow sound to be perceived equally within an area and regardless of the location of the speaker.
These types of speakers are also useful in spaces where the listener's location cannot be controlled, such as in meeting areas or outdoors.
These types of speakers feature specialized design technology, such as the spherical layout of the speaker drivers or the use of acoustic reflectors to achieve uniform sound distribution in all directions.
What types of speakers exist based on transducer technology?
A transducer is a device that converts one form of energy into another. In the case of speakers, the transducer converts electrical signals into sound waves and to do so, it consists of functional parts: coil and cone.
Electromagnetic speakers: They are the most common type of speaker, and they use electromagnetism for their operation. The main parts are:
Permanent magnet: The magnet creates a constant magnetic field in one part of the speaker.
Coil: Its ends are connected to the input of the speaker, allowing its movement by attraction or repulsion of the constant magnetic field of the magnet.
Cone: The coil is mechanically associated with the cone, so that the movements made by the coil are in turn carried out by the cone, creating sound waves in its vibration and therefore it is the sound that we perceive.
Piezoelectric speakers: This type of speaker uses piezoelectric crystals to generate sound.
Piezoelectricity is a phenomenon in which certain materials acquire an electrical polarization when a mechanical force is applied to them and, in turn, undergo mechanical deformation when an electric field is applied. This phenomenon manifests itself in a variety of materials, including certain glasses, ceramics, polymers, and biologicals.
In the case of piezoelectric speakers, an electrical signal is applied to a piezoelectric crystal causing the crystal to deform and produce mechanical vibrations. The vibrations as they propagate through the air produce sound.
The use of piezoelectric speakers in alarms, signage, toys and public address systems is common.
Electrostatic Speakers: This type of speaker works similar to the principle of a condenser microphone.
Its structure consists of three metal plates that form a kind of sandwich. The two outer plates, rigid and perforated, constitute the condenser. The inner plate, much thinner, is the diaphragm and is fed with a high voltage of direct current, while the signal that is applied to the external plates that make up the capacitor, is the variable electrical signal that will be converted into sound. . In this way the internal diagram varies depending on the signal applied to the external plates.
When an electrical signal is applied to the two outer plates that form the capacitor, the diaphragm moves depending on this input voltage, generating a pressure wave in the air like any speaker.
The movement of the diaphragm is produced by the difference in the potential of the electrical charges that exist on the outer plates, being attracted or repelled depending on the electrical signal that the plates receive.
Plasma speakers: This type of speaker uses an electric arc to generate sound. This technology uses a controlled electric arc to create sound.
Plasma speakers offer wide frequency response and crisp, clear sound reproduction. On the other hand, these speakers are less efficient due to the need for high electrical voltages for their operation, as well as the implementation of additional safety circuits to control the electric arc. In addition, small amounts of ozone can be generated by the electric arc itself, which is why it is not recommended for indoor spaces.
What types of speakers exist depending on their location?
Speakers inside the devices
Studio Monitor Speakers
What types of speakers are there depending on their connection and power?
Passive speakers: Passive speakers do not have an internal power supply or built-in amplification, and their operation depends on the electrical signal generated by a previous amplifier to produce sound.
Active or amplified speakers: Active speakers are a type of speaker that includes its own amplifier and integrated power supply, they are also known as self-powered speakers.
This type of speaker requires small electrical signals for its operation, since the speaker's internal amplifier will supply the energy necessary for its operation. This type of speakers usually also has its audio volume control integrated, and sometimes also the bass and treble filters.